The ASHRAE HVAC Applications Handbook chapter on laboratory design has many well-designed recommendations that will increase energy efficiency. This document should be studied in preparation for the design process. Importantly, additional information is included in the extensive ASHRAE Laboratory Design Guide (McIntosh) . Further detail is also available within this guide in the specified chapters.
The Handbook stresses the importance of estimating heat gains from laboratory equipment. See Load Management in Chapter 3.
At minimum, a separate thermostat is recommended for each laboratory. An Energy Monitoring and Control System (EMCS) that uses Direct Digital Control (DDC) is suggested. See Chapter 4.
The filtration efficiency should be verified with the researcher, and the pressure drop of the filter should be minimized. The energy-efficiency impacts of these two features of the filtration system are especially important in research cleanrooms. See Chapters 3, 5, and 8.
ASHRAE states, "Minimum airflow rates are generally in the range of 6 to 10 air changes per hour." Note that many laboratory designs have as much as 20 air changes per hour; sometimes even greater. This approach of "more is better" is not supported by recent studies and calculations. This approach of making a laboratory "safe" with high air change rates is not an exact science and is extremely energy inefficient. See Chapters 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8.
The ASHRAE handbook section on ventilation under Laboratory Animal Facilities acknowledges that a wide range of design factors influence airflow rates. Recent studies and evaluations have examined the benefits of ventilating cages directly and using computational fluid dynamics to understand the room's air circulation patterns more clearly. Energy savings are increased when these techniques are used in animal facility design. See Chapter 3, 5, 6, and 7.