Energy Efficiency and DDC Implementation
When a DDC system is used to control a building at a facility site, it is typically referred to as a "Building Automation System" (BAS). When used to control a group of buildings at a site, it may be more accurately called an "Energy Monitoring and Control System" (EMCS) or an "Energy Management System" (EMS). BAS, EMCS, and EMS are terms used interchangeably but each refers to DDC systems that incorporate integrated hardware and software designed to: perform data acquisition, monitor alarms, provide exception reporting, automate controls, and produce historical records of the buildings or the site.
Once an EMCS is in place, multiple tasks can be accomplished with a degree of accuracy and speed that makes operations optimally cost effective. Aside from maintaining zone comfort in the laboratory, the EMCS can access the system locally (for each building) and centrally (for the entire site) at the same time, to monitor local and remote alarm systems, and provide graphical system displays, graphical analyses, and energy-use summary reports customized to the facility's operations. In addition, the EMCS helps ensure the operation of the laboratory's HVAC system, which must safeguard the health and well-being of laboratory personnel, as well as sensitive and costly equipment and experiments housed in the laboratory. Assuring that there is no leakage of contaminants into adjacent areas, for example, is a key concern in any working laboratory. The EMCS can evaluate the energy characteristics of the HVAC system and validate that cost reductions are, in fact, being achieved. [Barker et al., 1993; Smith, 1994]
One of the underutilized benefits of an EMCS is the ability to evaluate the energy characteristics of a laboratory's HVAC system. Energy cost reduction is an important factor in the selection of VAV system for research laboratories. Simulations performed by Neuman and Rosseau (1986) demonstrated the energy savings benefits of the VAV labs. An evaluation and verification method is necessary to ensure that a VAV system is actually providing operational cost savings. [Barker et al., 1993]
EMCS Pyramid structure