Reports and Related
Materials - March 24, 2000
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Acorn, William R., and
Nejat Babur. "Total Energy Management Strategies for Wafer Fabs." Proceedings,
International Environment Safety and Health Conference. May 29, 1996.
The authors present a programmatic approach to improving energy efficiency
in fabs. They focus on the air systems -- recirculation, make up, exhaust
-- define the energy cost components and then present strategies to reduce
energy use in these systems.
Alexanderson, Jon. "Cleaning
the slate: 300-mm transition can improve factory effectiveness" Solid
State Technology, (July 1997): 102-108.
Improvements in factory automation planned for the next generation
of 300 mm process tools can result in improved factory efficiency, productivity
and yields. The effects of these productivity imrovements will be to reduce
the rate of growth in resources use, including energy.
American Society of Heating,
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers. "Clean Spaces." Chapter 15
in ASHRAE Applications Handbook. Atlanta:1995.
Contains terminology, describes industrial applications where clean
rooms are used, how to control airborne particles, how to test clean spaces,
start up qualification procedures, semiconductor clean rooms, environmental
systems, including energy conservation considerations. Required reading
to understand the basics and get the language right, e.g. the ubiquitous
term "laminar" air flow is updated to "unidirectional" air flow.
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Babur, Nejat, and Enrico
B. Laos. "Electrical and Mechanical System Redundancy." Visions,
Acorn Engineering and Consulting. (undated).
Design strategies to assure sufficient redundancy are defined in this
paper. Six levels of redundancy are described, from "Level "0"...no capacity
provided above the maximum demand placed on the system," to "Level "6"...Any
component can be lost without affecting the ability of the system to supply
the maximum demand placed upon it."
Binder, Harald, René Galli,
and André H Bachmann. "Reduction of Production Costs Through E4 (tm) Efficiency
Engineering" Semiconductor Fabtech.
1998, Ed. 8.
Of the many changes that need to be addressed by the semiconductor
industry within the next ten years, the reduction of production costs
may be one of the most challenging. Although the main focus is still the
enhancement of wafer throughput and yield, the efficient use of resources
will gain more attention in the near future. This is where "efficiency
increase from mass flow analysis" takes over.
Barnett, William J., Paul
Castrucci, Raymond K. Schneider and Malcolm M. Williams. "Cost reduction
of clean rooms with 100% minienvironments." Proceedings, Institute
of Environmental Sciences. 1995, 135-141.
The authors report on the "Strategic Future Fab Study (SFFS)...performed
by Fluor Daniel, Paul Castrucci & Associates, and 22 other leading companies
with the goal of creating a new paradigm for the design and operation
of integrated circuit (IC) fab facilities." Study concludes that "savings
in...HVAC equipment first cost (8-14%) ongoing energy cost reduction (as
much as 75%)... are achievable using minienvironments. Other benefits
included "cleanroom garment cost savings ,...facility modification flexibility...,
flexible temperature/humidity conditions, simplified process tool electrical/piping
design..., and increased operator safety."
Bonora, Anthony. "There
and back again." Solid State Technology, (May 1997): 141-149.
Minienvironments installed around process tools can reduce the quantity
of class 1 or better air required to keep wafers clean, and also reduce
the amount of make up air required. The article presents the history of
minienvironments in contamination control design strategy.
Borri, Fabio, Carlo Cazzaniga.
"Environment: A New Industrial Parameter." SEMICON/Europa 95 International
Exhibition and Conference, Microelectronics and the Environment. Geneva,
The authors, from SGS-Thomson Microelectronics, present their company's
use of total quality environmental management as regards many environmental
issues, including energy efficiency.
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Carr, Peter, Angelo
C. Rapa, William J. Fosnight, Robert J. Baseman, Douglas W. Cooper. "Measured
Effects of Reduced Flow Velocity in a Laminar Flow Cleanroom." Journal
of the Institute of Environmental Sciences, (May/June 1994): 41-46.
This paper compares the contamination effect difference between 100
and 50 feet per minute laminar flows in a semiconductor cleanroom. It
concludes: "Although there was a significant particle increase during
the test at the lower flow rate, the absolute number of particles detected
was very low relative to wafer particle contamination from tools, processes,
and other sources normal to a semiconductor production line. As a result
of these tests, the decision was made to reduce the nominal VLF airflow
from 90 fpm to 65 fpm in the IBM VLSI semiconductor manufacturing building...Annual
energy savings of approximately $1 million dollars were projected."
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Dehais, Joseph. "Reduction
of Wet Chemical and Water Consumption Using the Radiance Process." SEMICON
Korea 95 Environmental and Safety Conference. January 18, 1995, 61-67.
Dehais presents a useful comparison of wet bench and deep UV dry cleaning
processes. The paper provides not enough data to calculate the relative
energy consumption of the two systems, mainly because other economic effects
from adopting dry cleaning are much larger than the energy savings.
DeJule, Ruth. "New Fab
Construction: Flexible facility architecture, safety and energy usage concerns
become paramount as costs soar." Semiconductor International, (January
This article reports on the recent (November 1997) EPA Semiconductor
Energy Efficiency conference in the overall context of new fab design
considerations. Minienvironments, modular fabs, 300 mm wafer manufacture,
and water use trends are discussed.
Devloo, Gary. "Fundamentals
of Clean room Mechanical Systems." Proceedings, Cleanrooms ‘93. 318-342.
Devloo works through the mechanical system design considerations required
for a clean room. The paper is supplemented with extensive slides illustrating
the paper’s principle points.
Devloo, Gary H. "Energy
Efficiency in Clean Rooms," Lepco, Inc.: Houston. (not dated).
Devloo provides an overview of clean room energy cost drivers, their
calculation, and opportunities to improve energy efficiency. The author
advocates reducing static pressure and brake horsepower in the recirculation
Dhudshia, Vallabh H. "SEMI
E10 -- Equipment Reliability, Availability and Maintainability." Semiconductor
International, (June 1997): 167-174.
Article maps the various time components of tool utilization. Facility
related downtime (e.g. for electrical disturbances) is put into the overall
tool utilization context. Key metrics to track time constituents are defined.
Dunn, Peter. "Majority
of Japanese chipmakers choose minienvironments" Cleanrooms, (January
This short article reports that 8 of 10 major Japanese chipmakers have
announced they will move to minienvironment design standards and use the
so-called "front opening unified pods (FOUPs).
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Faulkner, David. "Energy
Management in Semiconductor Cleanrooms."
Center for Building Science News, (Summer 1996): 6, Lawrence
Berkeley National Laboratory.
Cleanrooms are used extensively in the manufacturing of integrated
circuits and in the biological and pharmaceutical industries. For low
particle concentrations to be maintained, the air in the cleanroom must
be filtered. Researchers in the Center's Indoor
Environment Program are studying ways of reducing cleanroom energy
using a technique called demand-controlled filtration.
Faulkner, David, William
J. Fisk, and John T. Walton. "Energy
Savings in Cleanrooms from Demand-Controlled Ventilation." Journal
of the Institute of Environmental Sciences, (November/December 1996):
Faulkner and colleagues report on a study of demand controlled ventilation
in a small research laboratory (28 square meter, 300 square foot). They
report energy savings in the recirculation air fans on the order of 60-80%.
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Graneman, E.H.A. "Trends
in contamination control in IC production tools." Solid State Technology
(July 1997): 225-232.
In the 300 mm wafer transition the author expects most 300 mm fabs
to utilize minienvironments. Yield improvement is the primary economic
benefit of minienvironments with standard mechanical interface (SMIF);
energy costs are reduced and capital costs are increased.
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Hicks, Robert. "UC
Research on Efficient and Pollution-Free Semiconductor Manufacturing."
UCLA Chemical Engineering Department. 1997, (unpublished).
Compares current wafer cleaning practice using wet processes with emerging
"dry cleaning" technologies: cryogenic aerosol, laser-assisted particle
removal, plasma-mechanical cleaning.
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Jansen, Robert. "The
Crystal Cell FAB - A Design Innovation for Semiconductor Manufacturing
Facilities." Semiconductor Fabtech.
1998, Ed. 8.
The technological advances in IC manufacturing impose ever more stringent
conditions on production environment, costs and time. The challenge to
the FAB designer is to develop a facility which can satisfy these advanced
requirements. This article describes an innovative approach to facility
design by introducing a modular production environment. This concept accomodates
the most demanding conditions by providing fully segregated production
cells and total FAB automation. At the same time the realization cost
and time are significantly reduced.
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Lee, Alex H.W., Jerry
W. Golden, Jay W. Zarnikau. "The Technical and Economic Potential for
Electricity Energy Efficiency in a Semiconductor Manufacturing Plant."
1996 Industrial Technology Conference.
This paper's title overstates the actual content. It reports on a study
of the costs and benefits of high efficiency motor retrofits and adjustable
speed drive installations in a semiconductor fab. The economic analysis
apparently mishandles incremental labor costs for motor replacement at
end of useful life; as a result its conclusions may not be reliable. The
paper also neglects to study whether the motors being considered for replacement
are sized correctly, or whether alternative energy efficiency design strategies
could reduce the loads and obviate the need for the motor.
Livingston, Jack, David
Art, Ray Martin, F. Mark Traylor. "Are minienvironments more economical
for new construction?" Micro (March 1995): 33-49.
Using the SEMATECH Facilities Cost Model the authors conclude that
a 2% or better yield improvement from minienvironments would justify the
increased capital cost as compared to a conventional fab. The FCM summary
in the article does not explicitly report energy cost, though in the model
input summary air velocity and exhaust rates are both turned down for
the minienvironment case.
Livshits, Boris, Oer Tehar-Zahav,
Eli Iskevitch, Menachem Genut. "Laser, Dry and Plasmaless Photoresist Removal."
Solid State Technology, (July 1997): 197-202.
Describes a laser process to clean wafers which can eliminate plasma
and follow up wet processing. This single step process substitutes for
two processes, both of which are some f the more energy intensive process
steps in a fab. No comparative energy use data is given.
Lynn, Charles. "Design
Considerations for Minienvironment Cleanrooms: (Issues, Options, and Concepts)."
Journal of the Institute of Environmental Sciences, (November/December
The author illustrates how clean room first costs may increase in a
minienvironment design scheme, but energy costs are reduced. Other advantages
also include "lower gowning costs...greater process layout flexibility...reduced
cross contamination from process tools...(and) lower initial facilities
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Mitchell, Kim W., Richard
R. King, Theresa L. Jester. "Cz Si Photovoltaics: Towards 100 MW." Proceedings,
25th IEEE Photovoltaics Conference. Washington, DC, May 13-17, 1996.
Silicon crystal growing is an energy intensive process. From these
crystals wafers are sliced for use in both the photovoltaics and semiconductor
industries. This paper describes work by Siemens Solar Industries to improve
the energy efficiency of the Czochralski furnace. (Work with Siemens Solar
Industries in this area is being funded by the Northwest Energy Efficiency
"Motorola testing novel
cleaning tool." Micro, (June 1997).
Paper reports on testing the Radiance Services dry wafer cleaning technology.
Yield improvements, process toxics reduction and cleaning cost reductions
of 67-85% are reported to be achievable. Energy data are not given.
Munley, Stephen and Jon
Goldman. "Input Parameter SPC for Diffusion Furnaces." Solid State Technology,
(February 1998): 69-73.
An input-parameter statistical process control project implemented
in a diffusion furnace provided improvements in process control and preventative
maintenance. SPC may reduce energy use. Results are published on the web:
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- O -
Olsson, Craig. "Controlling
cleanroom fans with variable-speed drives saves energy, quiets operation."
Instrumentation and Control Systems, (July 1997): 39-42.
Olsson describes how his company has used variable frequency drives
in clean room recirculation air handlers. The article describes both the
energy savings benefits as well as a novel motor bearing failure mode
associated with early VFD-motor combinations. Eelctric current discharges
through the motor bearings to ground caused bearings to become pitted
and fail. Several solutions are described, including electrical isolation
of the bearings and grounding the motor shaft.
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Peters, Laura. "Ultrapure
Water: Rewards of Recycling." Semiconductor International, (February
Describes SEMATECH project to demonstrate UPW recycling. Identifies
research needs, uses of total organic compound sensors to control water
recycling flows to various stages in the system. Identifies savings in
energy, wastewater treatment, resin consumption, and RO membrane life.
Improvements to UPW plant uptime is defined as critical to fab operation.
Potter, Harald, and G.
Pollack. "Energy Consumption in IC Manufacturing Process: Status and Trends."
Third Annual International Safety and Health Summit. 1996.
Potter and his coauthor repeat a theme familiar to energy efficiency
practitioners, "As the actual ammount of a fab's energy consumption, allocated
[to end uses]...is mostly unknown, there is a lack of data which could
reveal to the operator the existence of savings potentials." Nevertheless
the authors provide two efficiency examples: reducing exhaust, and installing
fan filter units with velocity turned down in the gray area service bays.
- Q -
- R -
Richardson, Jeff. "Carbon-Aerogel
Capacitive Deionization of Water." Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,
Chemistry and Materials Science, UCRL-TB-110794-95.
A brief overview comparing capacitive deionization (CDI) with reverse
osmosis for water purification. CDI uses 10-20 times less energy per gallon
of purified water than RO process, and without the costly RO membranes.
Ristelhueber, Robert. "Getting
more bang for the buck." Electronic Business Today, (July 1996):
Improvements in overall tool utilization efficiency can reduce the
number of new fabs required to produce a given quantity of wafers. Tool
utilization rates typically as low as 30% can be improved to 70-80% or
more. The result is a "free fab" according to Tom Engibous, President
TI Semiconductor Group.
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Vladimir Starov, Werner Rust. "Transition in the post-etch wafer-cleaning
market and technologies." Solid State Technology, (May 1997): 171-180.
Article reviews progress in dry cleaning technology. A typical Cost
of Ownership model compares the relative order of magnitude costs of dry
clean and wet bench processing. Energy costs are not explicitly treated
in this model.
Schneider, Raymond K. "Cost
Savings Opportunities Using Membrane Ceilings." Proceedings, Cleanrooms
East ‘97. 262-267.
Membrane ceilings are designed using random ceiling grid HEPA or ULPA
filters in combination with a stretched membrane below the ceiling grid
to achieve a laminar flow-like effect. The author asserts the technique
is useful in new minienvironment designs as well as in upgrading older
existing fabs, and that it saves capital and energy costs.
Stein, Jay, Kurt Velguth,
Chris Robertson, Bill Howe, Sam Wheeler, David Houghton. "Delivering Energy
Services to Semiconductor and Related High-Tech Industries." E-Source, Inc.
Boulder, CO, 1998.
This two part study includes a market assessment and report on technical
opportunities to improve energy efficiency in clean rooms. A proprietary
"multi-client" study, this report is only available through E-Source.
It is expensive and geared primarily toward energy service providers seeking
to market to this industry.
Stromberg, Mark. "Wafer
Trek: The Next Generation." Solid State Technology, (July 1997):
Stromberg surveys market developments in the 300 mm tool transition.
The move to ever larger wafer sizes drives down production costs. "For
a given quantity of silicon, it should cost semiconductor manufacturers
75% as much to process 3200 mm as it will cost to process 150 mm wafers.
Chipmakers processing 300 mm wafers will incur half the costs of their
competitors running 150 mm wafers."
Pte Ltd Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Cleanroom Development." Links
(National University of Singapore) (Jan/Feb 1997): 5.
Supersymetry Services is building three small clean rooms of Class
0.01 at most penetrating particle size to test and simulate both vertical
and horizontal air flow. Also participating are the Center for Computational
Mechanics, National University of Singapore and the Singapore National
Science and Technology Board.
- T -
Taninecz, George. "Radiance
Service: Cleaning process removes microcontaminants without water." Industry
Week, (December 18, 1995).
This article provides background on the development of the Radiance
Process, and its testing in the semiconductor fab context at the Interuniversity
Microelectronics Center (IMEC) in Belgium. This "dry clean" technology
may permit large reductions in ultra pure water and its consequent energy
- U -
United States Environmental
Protection Agency. "Proceedings, Semiconductor Energy Efficiency Workshop."
San Jose, November 13-14, 1997.
Presenters at this workshop provided an overview of industry energy
use, identified opportunities for improved energy efficiency in fabs and
silicon wafer production. Contact Matt Williamson, 202-564-9094 for a
copy of these proceedings.
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Van Zant, Peter. "Microchip
fabrication: a practical guide to semiconductor processing." 3rd ed.,
McGraw-Hill, 1997. Chapter 4, "Contamination Control."Van Zant's
classic textbook provides an excellent overview of the sources of and
procedures used to minimize contamination in clean rooms.
- W -
"Western Digital Malaysia
- 2." Building Review Journal, Special Supplement, (1996).
Description of WD's award winning clean room and its high efficiency
energy aspects. This class 10 cleanroom incorporates many energy efficiency
features including: chiller water storage; high efficiency chillers (.51kW/ton);
high efficiency cooling towers and pumps; super low pressure loss UlPA
filters; low face velocity air handlers which "allows spectacular gains
in air handler efficiency, from a typical 0.4 kW/ton to 0.1 kW/ton or
better"; high efficiency clean room fans, run around coils to avoid all
added reheat for humidity control; high efficiency lighting, high efficiency
air compressors with double stage compressed air drying; and a state of
the art data acquisition and visualization system.
Williamson, M.C. "Energy
Efficiency in Semiconductor Manufacturing: A Tool for Cost Savings and Pollution
Prevention" Semiconductor Fabtech.
1998, Ed. 8.
Concerted effort on the part of semiconductor manufacturers, equipment
vendors, government and other outside experts can lead to substantial
improvements in energy efficiency within the semiconductor manufacturing
industry. Jointly pressing this effort ahead will yield impressive benefits
for the corporate bottom line and important benefits in pollution prevention.
Semiconductor manufacturers work hard to ensure a stable unpolluted indoor
environment for their manufacturing process; with some additional attention,
they can help ensure the same for the global environment.
Williamson, Paul, Bill
Koran, Glen Wallace, Walt Stamper. "Capturing Lost Opportunity in the High-Tech
Building Market Through Commissioning." Proceedings, ACEEE Summer Study
on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. 1994, 5.268-5.274.
A wafer manufacturing facility in Clark County, Washington participated
in a utility sponsored program to improve energy efficiency innew construction.
This paper describes the barriers to participation and how they were addressed,
the technical measures installed and the resultant estimated savings (35%
of baseline), and the use of building commissioning to assure that contracted
efficiency measures were installed.
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